Chronic & Infectious Disease

This Topic Covers:  A through understanding of what chronic and infectious diseases are. Prevention of chronic disease with diet and nutrition; Warding off germs; How to combat viruses, bacteria and germs treatment methods and strategies.  Information that will disclose methods to sustain your health, methods to place you on the road to recovery, and information that will address and combat attacks on your health. 

The topics and treatment plans in nutritional, vitamin, mineral, herbal and essential oils also address these areas. 



Introduction -   Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease All Rights Reserved.

Chronic diseases - ongoing, generally incurable illnesses, such as asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes and heart disease - are the single greatest threat to our nation's health and to our health care system.

Truth #1

Chronic diseases are the No. 1 cause of death and disability in the U.S.

Truth #2

Treating patients with chronic diseases accounts for 75 percent of the nation's healthcare spending.

Truth #3

Two-thirds of the increase in health care spending is due to increased prevalence of treated chronic disease.

Truth #4

The doubling of obesity between 1987 and today accounts for 20 to 30 percent of the rise in health care spending.

Truth #5

The vast majority of cases of chronic disease could be better prevented or managed.

Truth #6

Many Americans are unaware of the extent to which chronic diseases could be better prevented or managed. - The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)

When you or a loved one goes into a healthcare facility when you’re sick, you expect to get better—right? But did you know that each year nearly 1.7 million people in the U.S. get infections in hospitals while being treated for something else?

Unfortunately, nearly 99,000 people each year die from these infections—many of which could have been prevented with proper infection prevention practices.

Everyone plays a role in infection prevention—patients, families, and healthcare personnel. You play an important role in infection prevention—in and out of healthcare facilities.

Do your part! Wherever you are, there is something you can do to stay safe from infections. - - Alliance for Consumer Education

Public Health is best promoted by preventing disease.  Cleanliness promotes good health.  Yet each year, because of a simple lack of knowledge, people of all ages unwittingly come in contact with disease causing pathogens.  They risk illness as a result.  They can also transmit germs to loved ones in their homes, colleagues at work and school, and to others in the community.  This continuing cycle of disease presents a challenge to the good health of adults and children through the United States and around the world.


Alarming Health Statistics -   Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease All Rights Reserved.

The Impact of Chronic Disease: Chronic diseases are the most prevalent and costly health care problems in the United States. Nearly half (45 percent) of all Americans suffer from at least one chronic disease. More than two-thirds of all deaths are caused by one or more of five chronic diseases: heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes. Many chronic diseases are lifelong conditions, and their impact lessens the quality of life not only of those suffering from the diseases, but also of their family members, caregivers, and others.

Chronic disease not only affects health and quality of life, but is also a major driver of health care costs and threatens health care affordability. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), chronic disease accounts for about 75 percent of the nation's aggregate health care spending - or about $5,300 per person in the U.S. each year. In taxpayer-funded programs, treatment of chronic disease constitutes an even larger proportion of spending - 96 cents per dollar for Medicare and 83 cents per dollar for Medicaid. Much of the persistent increase in spending over the past two decades is attributable to rising disease prevalence, lower clinical thresholds for treatment, and new medical innovations that have emerged to treat chronic and other diseases.

Unhealthy behavior and increased incidence of chronic disease are also extremely costly in terms of health care coverage affordability. Since 2000, health insurance premiums for employer-sponsored family coverage have increased by 87 percent. Health care costs for people with a chronic condition average $6,032 annually - five times higher than for those without such a condition.

Chronic disease also has broader economic impact. Poor health and chronic disease reduce economic productivity by contributing to increased absenteeism, poor performance, and other losses. A Milken Institute analysis determined that treatment of the seven most common chronic diseases, coupled with productivity losses, cost the U.S. economy more than $1 trillion dollars annually. The same analysis estimates that modest reductions in unhealthy behaviors could prevent or delay 40 million cases of chronic illness per year.

World Health Organization  (WHO) - pdf

The burden of chronic diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide. It has been calculated that, in 2001, chronic diseases contributed approximately 60% of the 56.5 million total reported deaths in the world and approximately 46% of the global burden of disease (1). The proportion of the burden of NCDs is expected to increase to 57% by 2020.

It has been projected that, by 2020, chronic diseases will account for almost three-quarters of all deaths worldwide, and that 71% of deaths due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD), 75% of deaths due to stroke, and 70% of deaths due to diabetes will occur in developing countries (4). The number of people in the developing world with diabetes will increase by more than 2.5-fold, from 84 million in 1995 to 228 million in 2025 (5). 

Chronic diseases are largely preventable diseases. Although more basic research may be needed on some aspects of the mechanisms that link diet to health, the currently available scientific evidence provides a sufficiently strong and plausible basis to justify taking action now.

On a global basis, 60% of the burden of chronic diseases will occur in developing countries. Indeed, cardiovascular diseases are even now more numerous in India and China than in all the economically developed countries in the world put together (2). As for overweight and obesity, not only has the current prevalence already reached unprecedented levels, but the rate at which it is annually increasing in most developing regions is substantial (3). The public health implications of this phenomenon are staggering, and are already becoming apparent.

The chronic disease problem is far from being limited to the developed regions of the world. Contrary to widely held beliefs; developing countries are increasingly suffering from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. In five out of the six regions of WHO, deaths caused by chronic diseases dominate the mortality statistics (1).

It is clear that the earlier labeling of chronic diseases as ‘‘diseases of affluence’’ is increasingly a misnomer, as they emerge both in poorer countries and in the poorer population groups in richer countries. This shift in the pattern of disease is taking place at an accelerating rate; furthermore, it is occurring at a faster rate in developing countries than it did in the industrialized regions of the world half a century ago (3). This 4 rapid rate of change, together with the increasing burden of disease, is creating a major public health threat, which demands immediate and effective action. - Ounce of Prevention - brochure pdf

Infectious Diseases - The Facts Behind the Urgency:  There are many types of germs (viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi) that cause many types of illnesses – including the common cold or flu, food borne illness, Lyme disease, hantavirus, or plague. These germs can spread easily from one person to another – and have wide-reaching effects.

  • About 10 million U.S. adults (ages 18 - 69) were unable to work during 2002 due to health problems.

  • Salmonella infections are responsible for an estimated 1.4 million illnesses each year.

  • Infectious diseases cost the U.S. $120 billion a year.

  • More than 160,000 people in the U.S. die yearly from an infectious disease.


Diet, Nutrition & Prevention of Chronic Disease


Reference Source - World Health Organization  (WHO) - pdf 


In order to achieve the best results in preventing chronic diseases, the strategies and policies that are applied must fully recognize the essential role of diet, nutrition and physical activity.

  • Physical activity has great influence on body composition --- on the amount of fat, muscle and bone tissue.

  • To a large extent, physical activity and nutrients share the same metabolic pathways and can interact in various ways that influence the risk and pathogenesis of several chronic diseases.

  • Cardiovascular fitness and physical activity have been shown to reduce significantly the effects of overweight and obesity on health.

  • Physical activity and food intake are both specific and mutually interacting behaviors that are and can be influenced partly by the same measures and policies.

  • Lack of physical activity is already a global health hazard and is a prevalent and rapidly increasing problem in both developed and developing countries, particularly among poor people in large cities.

Diet and nutrition are important factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout the entire life course. Their role as determinants of chronic NCDs is well established and they therefore occupy a prominent position in prevention activities (1).

The latest scientific evidence on the nature and strength of the links between diet and chronic diseases is examined and discussed in detail in the following sections of this report. This section gives an overall view of the current situation and trends in chronic diseases at the global level.

The chronic diseases considered in this report are those that are related to diet and nutrition and present the greatest public health burden, either in terms of direct cost to society and government, or in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). These include obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis and dental diseases.

To read in its entirety...World Health Organization  (WHO) - pdf 


Infectious Diseases Defined


Alarming Statistics - Infectious Diseases

Medline Plus – A service of the National Library of Medicine & the National Institute of Health

Infectious Diseases - also called Communicable Diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections.

There are four main kinds of germs:

  • Bacteria- one-celled germs that multiply quickly and may release chemicals which can make you sick

  • Viruses - capsules that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply

  • Fungi- primitive vegetables, like mushrooms or mildew

  • Protozoa– one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live

Causes of  Infectious Diseases?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one or more of the following causes an infectious disease:

  • Viruses

  • Bacteria

  • Parasites

  • Fungi

Infectious diseases can range from common illnesses, such as the cold, to deadly illnesses, such as AIDS. Depending on the specific illness and country (some countries with poor community hygiene may still experience waterborne transmission of a disease), an infectious disease can spread in some or all of the following ways:

  • Sexual transmission - transmission of an infection through sexual contact, including intercourse

  • Airborne transmission - transmission of an infection through inhaling airborne droplets of the disease, which may exist in the air as a result of a cough or sneeze from an infected person

  • Blood-borne transmission - transmission of an infection through contact with infected blood, such as when sharing hypodermic needles

  • Direct skin contact - transmission of an infection through contact with the skin of an infected person

  • Insect-borne transmission - transmission of an infection through insects, such as mosquitoes, which draw blood from an infected person and then bite a healthy person

  • Food-borne transmission - transmission of an infection through consuming contaminated food

  • Water-borne transmission - transmission of an infection through contact with contaminated water

  • Other mechanisms that can transmit a disease

In developed countries, most infections are spread through sexual, airborne, blood-borne, and direct skin contact transmission.


Understanding Infection vs. Disease

Medline Plus - Infections

There's a distinct difference between infection and disease. Infection, often the first step, occurs when bacteria, viruses or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease occurs when the cells in your body are damaged — as a result of the infection — and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.

In response to infection, your immune system springs into action. An army of white blood cells, antibodies and other mechanisms goes to work to rid your body of whatever is causing the infection. For instance, in fighting off the common cold, your body might react with fever, coughing and sneezing. Full listing of all infectious diseases, please review here…Medline Plus - Infections

What is the difference between viruses and bacteria?

Viruses and bacteria cause the majority of infections. Viruses cause most colds, flu, coughs, and sore throats. Bacteria cause most ear and sinus infections, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. Both bacteria and viruses can enter the body in many ways, including through inhalation, food, sexual contact, and skin contact.

How do antibiotics work against infections?

Antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections. However, antibiotics are ineffective in treating virus-related illnesses. In addition, antibiotics treat specific bacteria and overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to drug-resistant bacteria. It is important that antibiotics are taken properly and for the duration of the prescription. If antibiotics are stopped early, the bacteria may develop a resistance to the antibiotics. 


A Guide on the Overuse of Antibiotics

Link to "GETSMART Know When Antibiotics Work” designed to educate patients about the overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics.

See In-depth Information on Antibiotic Resistance



Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi & Germs 

Content Provided From -

Bacteria, viruses and other infectious organisms — germs — live everywhere. You can find them in the air, on food, plants and animals, in the soil, in the water, and on just about every other surface — including your own body. These microbes range in size from microscopic single-celled organisms to parasitic worms that can grow to several feet in length.

Most of these organisms won't harm you. Your immune system protects you against a multitude of infectious agents. However, some bacteria and viruses are formidable adversaries because they're constantly mutating to breach your immune system's defenses.

Not all bacteria are harmful. In fact, less than 1 percent cause disease, and some bacteria that live in your body are actually good for you. For instance, Lactobacillus acidophilus — a harmless bacterium that resides in your intestines — helps you digest food, destroys some disease-causing organisms and provides nutrients to your body.

But when infectious bacteria enter your body, they can cause illness. They rapidly reproduce, and many produce toxins — powerful chemicals that damage specific cells in the tissue they've invaded. That's what makes you ill. The organism that causes gonorrhea (gonococcus) is an example of a bacterial invader. Others include some strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli — better known as E. coli — which cause severe gastrointestinal illness and are most often contracted via contaminated food. If you've ever had strep throat, bacteria caused it.

Viruses: The main mission of a virus is to reproduce. However, unlike bacteria, viruses aren't self-sufficient — they need a suitable host to reproduce. When a virus invades your body, it enters some of your cells and takes over, instructing these host cells to make what it needs for reproduction. Host cells are eventually destroyed during this process. Polio, AIDS and the common cold are all viral illnesses.

Fungi live in the air, water, soil and on plants. They can live in your body, usually without causing illness. Some fungi have beneficial uses. For example, penicillin — an antibiotic that kills harmful bacteria in your body — is derived from fungi. Fungi are also essential in making certain foods, such as bread, cheese and yogurt.

Other fungi aren't as beneficial and can cause illness. One example is candida — a yeast that can cause infection. Candida can cause thrush — an infection of the mouth and throat — in infants and in people taking antibiotics or who have an impaired immune system. It's also responsible for most types of infection-related diaper rash.

Protozoa are single-celled organisms that behave like tiny animals — hunting and gathering other microbes for food. Protozoa can live within your body as a parasite. Many protozoa call your intestinal tract home and are harmless. Others cause disease, such as the 1993 Cryptosporidium parvum invasion of the Milwaukee water supply, sickening more than 400,000 people. Often, these organisms spend part of their life cycle outside of humans or other hosts, living in food, soil, water or insects.

Some protozoa invade your body through the food you eat or the water you drink. Others can be transmitted through sexual contact. Still others are vector-borne, meaning they rely on another organism to transmit them from person to person. Malaria is an example of a disease caused by a vector-borne protozoan parasite. Mosquitoes are the vectors transmitting the deadly parasite plasmodium, which causes the disease.


What Is The Immune System

Link to in-depth Information on The Immune System

Warding Off Germs & Bacteria - Ounce of Prevention - brochure pdf


Help keep yourself and your family healthy by making the Seven Keys to a Safer Healthier Home part of your permanent household routine.

What's the best way to stay disease-free? Prevent infections from happening in the first place. You can prevent infection through simple tactics such as regular hand washing, vaccinations and appropriate medications.

Hand washing. Often overlooked, hand washing is one of the easiest and most effective ways to protect yourself from germs and most infections. Wash your hands thoroughly before preparing or eating food, after coughing or sneezing, after changing a diaper and after using the toilet. When soap and water aren't readily available, alcohol-based hand-sanitizing gels can offer protection.

Vaccines. Vaccination is your best line of defense for certain diseases. As researchers understand more about what causes disease, the list of vaccine-preventable diseases continues to grow. Many vaccines are given in childhood, but adults still need to be routinely vaccinated to prevent some illnesses, such as tetanus and influenza.

Medicines. Some medicines can help you from becoming susceptible to germs. For example, taking an anti-parasitic medication might protect you from contracting malaria if you travel to or live in an area where your risk is high. Or when you are at high risk of exposure to certain organisms — such as those that cause bacterial meningitis — your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to lower your risk of infection. Using over-the-counter antibiotic creams can decrease the chance of infection of minor cuts and scrapes. But long-term, indiscriminate use of antibiotics isn't recommended in most cases. It won't prevent bacterial infections and instead may result in a more resistant, harder-to-treat strain of bacteria when infections do occur.

Content Provided Live Healthy Naturally

Use disinfecting wipes or cleanser to clean such common surfaces as door handles, phones, computer keyboards, countertops and tools. Use disinfecting wipes after handling public doorknobs and handles.  Disinfect all fresh fruits and vegetables before eating. - - Alliance for Consumer Education

Germs live everywhere.  They are in your living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, nursery, study, foyer, and garage.  They are also in other places like your car, office, school, and around the community.

Below are health tips sheets that provide information on a variety of topics for your family.  All sheets can be viewed in HTML or PDF format to make viewing and printing easier.

Tips for Keeping Your Family Healthy

Seasonal Health Tips (including cold & flu, ticks & Lyme Disease, and West Nile)

Other Important Health Tips (Whooping Cough, Asthma, Lice, and Avian Flu)


Tips for Keeping Your Home Healthy - The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology

Home is where the heart is. So don’t bring infections home to your family. Follow these steps to ensure you create and maintain a healthy and infection-free environment:

Wash or sanitize your hands after you come home from public places. Wash hands before preparing food, before eating, between handling uncooked fruit and vegetables and raw meats, and after toilet use. Hand washing: Do it right!

  • Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds – that’s about as long as it takes to sing the “Happy Birthday” song twice. (Listen to the CDC’s “Happy Handwashing Song” for kids, sung to the tune of “Happy Birthday”)

  • Air-dry your hands or use a paper towel.

  • Use a paper towel to turn off the faucet, and then throw it away.

  • If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. But make sure the the hand sanitizer contains at least 60 percent alcohol.

Use safe cooking practices. Foodborne illnesses frequently arise from poor food preparation and dining habits. How can foodborne illness be avoided?

  • Don’t leave food out. Microbes thrive on virtually all food items, and more so on foods left at room temperature.

  • Refrigeration slows or stops the growth of most microbes. Promptly refrigerate foods within 2 hours of preparation.

  • Use separate cutting boards for raw meats and vegetables.

  • Wash all fruits and vegetables prior to eating.

  • Keep your countertops clean.

Don’t share personal items. Toothbrushes, towels, razors, handkerchiefs, and nail clippers can all be sources of infectious agents (think bacteria, viruses, and fungi). Remind children often that while they can share toys, there are some types of items they should not share with others.

Do not place purses or diaper bags on the kitchen table, on the kitchen counter or anywhere else food is consumed in your home.

Purses, backpacks, and shopping bags land on some pretty germy places—public bathroom floors, shopping carts, and other less-than-desirable resting spots. So why does this matter so much? Because you also leave them all over your home.

Keep pet environments clean and remember to prevent pets from drinking out of the toilet. Keep pets vaccinated and bathed, and clean up accidents promptly. Provide clean bedding, water, and food dishes. Protect your pet and your family and keep disease out of your home by preventing fleas, ticks, and other pests from getting in.

Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces on a regular basis. Establish a schedule for daily and weekly cleaning and disinfection activities based on the location and level of contamination. Clean more often when there are sick family members in your home.

Avoid clutter to limit areas where dust and dirt can collect.

Organize your cleaning supplies in one area so they are easy to find. Remember to keep cleaning agents away from children.

Make it a family affair. Keeping a home clean should be shared by all members of the family. Assign young kids simple tasks to keep them involved.


Staying Germ-free in Healthcare Settings - The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology

Healthcare settings include hospitals, outpatient surgery centers, doctors’ offices, nursing and hospice care, and other similar settings. Patients in healthcare settings are vulnerable to catching infections unrelated to their care. But the good news is that patients, their families, and other visitors can take steps to prevent infections. Here are the top 10 things you can do:

Speak up for your care and ask plenty of questions when you go into any healthcare facility. Don’t be shy.

Wash your hands regularly with soap and water or use hand sanitizer often.

Ask about safe injection practices. Remember: One needle, one syringe, only one time isn’t just a snappy line. It could save your life. Safe injection practices are steps, such as not using the same needle or syringe on more than one patient, that your healthcare providers should follow when they give injections.

Be alert. Watch for potentially unsafe practices such as using the same syringe to administer medication to more than one person. Also make sure that the syringe being used to flush out your IV line is brand new—and hasn’t been used to flush out another person’s line. Finally, don’t use (or let your healthcare provider use) insulin pens and other injection equipment containing multiple doses of medication on more than one person.

Ask to have your room cleaned if it looks dirty.

Ask questions about the medications that are prescribed to you. Know what they are for, how to take them, and how often you should take them. If you are prescribed antibiotics, take all of them—even if you start to feel better.

Ask if you should shower with a germ killing soap before having surgery.

Ask each day if you still need a catheter.

Ask about vaccines you need to stay healthy.

Know about infection preventionists. Infection preventionists partner with your healthcare team to make sure everyone is doing the right things to keep you safe from healthcare-associated infections:

  • Healthcare workers will clean their hands before and after they care for you.

  • Any catheters or indwelling devices will be placed in your body after your skin receives proper cleaning. These devices will be kept clean and will be removed as soon as possible.

  • Your healthcare workers will wear gloves, gowns, and masks at the right times. If you are in “isolation,” you and your visitors will need to do this too.

  • Your room and any equipment that is used on you will be clean.

*At the time of check-in to your room, if you are not able, have a family member wipe down with disinfect wipes TV remote, hand rails to bed, phone, and items that you may have to touch or come in contact with on a regular basis. These items are infrequently, or perhaps, never cleaned and are major sources of germs and contamination. – Live Healthy Naturally

Become familiar with healthcare-associated infections. HAIs are infections that patients can get while receiving treatment for medical or surgical conditions.

Staying Healthy …Everywhere Else

At school - School days, school days. They shouldn’t all be cold and flu days! Frequent hand washing, proper vaccination, and cleaning and disinfecting surfaces are important strategies to keep students and teachers healthy. Make sure every school year is productive and healthy by following some key infection prevention tips.

Vacation - Don’t let infections ruin your vacation! Talk to your doctor about any vaccinations you will need before traveling and be sure to bring a First Aid kit and lots of hand sanitizer. Learn more.

At work - Many people spend at least 40 hours each week at work. So why not make it a healthy place? By maintaining good personal hygiene practices and ensuring a clean workplace, we can all focus on more important things. Because let’s face it—you’re too busy to get sick.

Eating out - When choosing restaurants, look for basic clues as to the cleanliness of the facility, and the freshness of the food. Freshly-cooked, hot-served foods are safer than foods that have been left unrefrigerated in a kitchen or on a buffet table. Taking home leftovers? Refrigerate and then eat them within a day or two.


Respirators for Public Health Emergencies

Link to Emergency Preparedness - Respirator Fact Sheets


Infectious Disease Database Search


The Diseases and Conditions A-Z index  - Listing of all infectious diseases

The list of Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases for the current year and recent previous years is available at the this site. The annual list is revised periodically.

State and local public health officials rely on health-care providers, laboratories, and other public health personnel to report the occurrence of notifiable diseases to state and local health departments. Without such data, unusual occurrences of diseases might not be detected, trends cannot be accurately monitored, and the effectiveness of intervention activities cannot be easily evaluated.

In the United States, requirements for reporting diseases are mandated by state or local laws or regulations, and the list of reportable diseases in each state differs. All states generally report the internationally quarantinable diseases (i.e., cholera, plague, and yellow fever) in compliance with the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations.

The Who Global Info InfoBase is a data warehouse that collects, stores and displays information on chronic diseases and their risk factors for all WHO member States.

Medline Plus -  (A Service of the National Library of Medicine)

Search Tool for Infectious and Chronic Diseases - The Free Library Reports on Emerging Infectious Diseases - National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

Information for media resource guides, news alerts, vaccine information


Alternative Treatment - The Role of Knowledge


This is an eBook by Henry Lindlahr M.D. on the treatment of acute and chronic diseases using drug free, naturopathic / nature cure, totally non-invasive methods.



Clinical Trial Results on Alternative Treatments

Content provided from



Essential Oils Proven Effective Against MRSA: Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable).  A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain)….

This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. To read in its entirety… The Effect of Essential Oils on MRSA


The antimicrobial activity of 4 samples of B. citriodora oil, leaf paste, commercial tea (0.2 and 0.02 g/mL), and hydrosol (aqueous distillate) were tested against 13 bacteria and 8 fungi… The 4 essential oils were found to be effective antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, variation was apparent between oils that did not correlate with citral content.


The essential oil of Dracocephalum foetidum, a popular essential oil used in Mongolian traditional medicine, was examined for its antimicrobial activity. Eight human pathogenic microorganisms including B. subtilis, S. aureus, M. lutens, E. hirae, S. mutans, E. coli, C. albicans, and S. cerevisiae were examined. The essential oil of Dracocephalum foetidum exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested


The essential oil of Oliveria decumbens was investigated for its components and antimicrobial activity against six bacteria and two fungal strains. The oil exhibited high antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and fungal strains.


In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was tested alone and in combination. Both essential oils possessed significant antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested…The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of…


This finding suggests that dietary oregano essential oil exerted a significant antioxidant effect. Dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil at the level of 200 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the level of 100 mg/kg, but inferior to dietary supplementation of 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate per kg.

This study indirectly provides evidence that antioxidant compounds occurring in oregano essential oil were absorbed by the rabbit and increased the antioxidative capacity of tissues.